‘The Chilcotin Massacre’

“I have cousins in several Indian bands and am proud of that connection, and am equally proud of my ancestors who came from all over Europe seeking a better life. But it wasn’t an easy road… 

My great-great grandfather…was murdered by Chilcotin (Tsilhqot’in) Indian bandits in 1864. It’s been a bone of contention with me that Donald McLean’s killers were hailed as heroes by latter-day Chilcotin politicians who demanded an apology from the B.C. government for their trial and execution.

“It vexes me even more that they got what they wanted from Christy Clark in 2014. Many years ago, when I attended an assembly of Chilcotin chiefs held to demand that apology, I stood up and suggested that a good first step toward their goal would be for them to first apologize for the murder of my ancestor by their forebears.

“This wasn’t viewed kindly at a meeting designed to stoke up fire among the converted, and I was branded a ‘racist’

“‘First Nations’ and Left-wing writers have disgorged so much convenient revisionist B.S., in order to create a poster child for injustices unrelated to the Chilcotin war, that the truth has been lost or purposely buried.

“I’m well aware that one person’s thug is another’s hero, and the leader of the Chilcotin terrorists — even though he was condemned by the hereditary Chilcotin chiefs at the time — was not without redeeming qualities. He was, in fact, a tragic figure, but he deserved to die for slaughtering 19 people, including my ancestor.

“Had I received the apology I asked for, I would have felt better. It would have been a starting point for mutual reconciliation, instead of being typical of the long and frustrating path that has marked attempts to reach settlements and understanding over the past several decades…”

–‘Crossing the cultural divide’,
Mel Rothenburger, News Kamloops, June 18, 2016

http://www.newskamloops.com/news/post/rothenburger-crossing-the-cultural-divide
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Comment: “I wish those Chilcotin chiefs had apologized and recognized the benefits of mutual reconciliation. I’m increasingly uncomfortable with the political apologies happening on our behalf, reducing complex historical events to a ‘you were right and we were wrong, so do let us grovel and apologize for our forebears’. The history around what actually happened is over-simplified or ignored.” 

PHOTO: KIM STALLKNECHT
PHOTO: KIM STALLKNECHT

The Shameful Falsifying of History:
‘B.C. apologizes for hanging six Tsilhqot’in chiefs 150 years ago’

“To the extent that it falls within the power of the province of British Columbia, we confirm without reservation that these six Tsilhqot’in chiefs are fully exonerated of any crime of wrongdoing,” Premier Clark said.

“The Tsilhqot’in people rightly regard these chiefs as heroes of their people {?}. So today we offer this apology, a historic day 150 years later.”

{‘And we spit on the graves of the victims of this infamous massacre…’}

— ‘Premier Clark apologizes for wrongful death of ‘First Nations’ chiefs’,
DIRK MEISSNER, Toronto Globe and Mail, Oct. 23, 2014

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/premier-clark-apologizes-for-wrongful-death-of-first-nations-chiefs/article21279675/CHILCOTINa
First, the Background —
‘The Tsilhqot’in Massacre’: 

“Construction of the Bute Inlet Wagon Road had been underway for two years when, on April 29, 1864 a ferryman — Timothy Smith, stationed 30 miles up the river — was killed, after refusing a demand from Klatsassin, Tellot and other natives, for food. Smith was shot and his body thrown into the river. The food stores and supplies were looted. A half ton of provisions were taken.

“The following day, the natives attacked the workers camp at daylight. Three men, Peterson Dane, Edwin Moseley and a man named Buckley, though injured, escaped and fled down the river. The remaining crew were killed and their bodies thrown into the river.

“Four miles further up the trail, the band came upon the foreman, William Brewster and three of his men, blazing trail. All were killed. Brewster’s body was mutilated and left. The others’ bodies were thrown into the river. The band also killed William Manning, a settler at Puntzi Lake.

“A pack train led by Alexander McDonald, though warned, continued into the area and three of the drivers were killed in the ensuing ambush.

In all, NINETEEN men were killed… 

The Bentinck Expedition (1864)
The Bentinck Expedition (1864)

“A…party of 50 men under Gold Commissioner William Cox went to the area using an overland route, met an ambush and retreated.

“Chartres Brew, aboard the ‘HMS Sutlej’ — along with the Governor and 38 men — went out again to reach the Chilcoltin from Bentinck Arm. They arrived July 7 and met Cox.  Donald McLean led a scouting party to reconnoitre. A guide, hearing a rifle click, urged him to get down. He didn’t, and was shot through the heart.

“Chief Alexis and a slave of Klatsassin met with Cox… The next day, Klatsassin, Tallot and six others arrived. They were arrested…

“Five of the Tsilhqot’in men (Telloot, Klatsassin, Tah-pitt, Piele, and Chessus) were arrested and charged with murder. They were tried in September 1864 at Quesnel, by Judge Begbie. 

“In defence of their actions, Klatsassin said they were waging war, not committing murder {In war, you don’t murder every last man — you take prisoners…}. The five were found guilty and sentenced to hang…
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“Behind the chief motivating cause of the ‘Uprising’, we may discern a number of contributing causes…

“These include: a history of warfare and feuding with many surrounding groups;
a new incursion by miners who, unlike the fur traders, had no need to partner with the Indians;
and the disruption of Tsilhqot’in society caused by the smallpox outbreak of 1862 — combined with a hostility to ‘whites’ for bringing it into their country

“And their culture favoured the expression of this hostility in acts of war, if opportunity offered…

“The reasons for the surrender by the Tsilhqot’in leaders are not difficult to fathom. The ‘Uprising’, which began in April of 1864 and ended in August, had given the Tsilhqot’in involved ample opportunity to learn of the strength of the ‘whites’ and the determination of the colonial authorities to deal with the conflict energetically.

“The arrival of the two overland expeditions, and the actions of the ‘whites’ in scouring the countryside in search of the Indians, would be ample indications of the colonial government’s strength. When it is considered that the Indians, unlike the ‘whites’, were dependent on local supplies gathered and hunted, and that they would be conscious of the coming-on of winter with its scarcities, it is not difficult to see why the Indians gave up the struggle.

The disunity of the Tsilhqot’in within themselves, and their inability or unwillingness to draw in other tribes into their revolt — or their failure to attempt to do so — is a basic reason for the collapse of the uprising.

“It is, in fact, impossible to see how the insurgent Tsilhqot’in could have been successful, given the conditions existing. The uprising took place at a time when European settlement and European control were simply too dominant for even a possibility of success. Only the Tsilhqot’in’s comparatively limited knowledge of European power could have given them any illusion of the prospect of victory.”  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilcotin_WarChilcotinHomSec(EDIT)
“It appears the Indians came on Bella Coola River with the avowed determination to kill every white man they met.”

–‘The Bentinck Expedition,
The British Columbian, June 29, 1864

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/attackonthepacktrain/129en.html ErasingHistory
Now, here’s how you politically rewrite history, 130 years later:

“In 1993, Judge Anthony Sarich wrote a report commissioned by the {NDP} government of British Columbia, of an inquiry into the relationship between the aboriginal community in British Columbia and the justice system.

“As a result of the recommendations in the report, the Attorney General apologized for the hanging of the Chilcotin chiefs, and provided funding for the archaeological excavation of their graves, to ensure a proper burial.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilcotin_War

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/aftermath/chilcotinwartoday/469en.html 

IMAGE: Shawn Swanky
IMAGE: Shawn Swanky

The Chilcotin {and now B.C.} Version:

 “It wasn’t long ago that an RCMP officer asked Chief Joe Alphonse for some help in understanding the people of his ‘First Nation’.

“The Mountie, who was from the small community of Alexis Creek west of Williams Lake, B.C., told Alphonse that every encounter he had with aboriginal people in the Cariboo-Chilcoutin area always involved the same topic: the hangings.

“He wanted to know what our members were talking about,” said Chief Joe Alphonse, a Tsilhqot’in ‘Nation’ chief. “He said every single last Tsilhqot’in person we pull over will look at us and tell us, ‘you bastards hung our chiefs.”’

“Alphonse said he gave the officer a ‘history lesson’ about events 150 years ago when B.C. was a colony and the government tried to build a toll road from Bute Inlet on the coast to the Cariboo gold fields in Barkerville.

“The canyons, rivers and mountains were treacherous and going was slow, but the road builders met an even more difficult force, the Tsilhqot’in aboriginals.

“The dispute left 20 non-aboriginals dead and six chiefs were later hanged. {The “dispute”?}

“The ‘Chilcotin War’ {‘Chilcotin Massacre’} is known as Western Canada’s deadliest attack by aboriginals on non-aboriginal settlers. It started in April 1864, and by the end of May, 19 road builders and a farmer were dead.

” ‘First Nations’, decimated by smallpox and fearing an influx of settlers into their territory, put up an ‘armed resistance’ to the workers attempting to build a road through their territory.

{The problem with that explanation is that road building had already been going on for two years… And it was only ONE ‘first nation’ that generated the violence…}

“A militia army of more than 100 people was sent into the area, but capturing the Tsilhqot’in was impossible.

“After three months, the area’s police chief invited the aboriginals to a meeting, where the ‘First Nations’ — believing they were being summoned for peace talks — were arrested {They naively believed that the authorities wouldn’t dare do anything to them}.

“The men were given brief trials. Five were hanged in Quesnel on Oct. 26, 1864, and another was hanged later in New Westminster.

“This is as deeply ingrained (in us) as you can imagine it to be,” said Alphonse, a relative of one of the six chiefs. “How we look at the province has been affected by what these ‘warriors’ did. Right or wrong, it is part of our history, and it does make the character of the Tsilhqot’in and the makeup of British Columbia.”

“The road was never built.

“Alphonse and Tsilhqot’in Chief Roger William joined Premier Christy Clark in the legislature on Thursday to hear her apology on behalf of the province…”

–‘First Nations’ chief gives lessons about hangings 150 years later’,
Dirk Meissner, The Canadian Press, Oct. 23, 2014

http://www.carstairscourier.ca/article/GB/20141023/CP02/310239789/-1/car08/first-nations-chief-gives-lessons-about-hangings-150-years-later

Mouth of Homathko River, Bute Inlet (Frederick Whymper, ca. 1837-1901)
Mouth of Homathko River, Bute Inlet (Frederick Whymper, ca. 1837-1901)

Now, here’s some more documented History that I can only assume the Premier has never seen:

Edwin Mosely, “A Survivor’s Account”, Daily Chronicle, May 12, 1864:

“We have received the following account of the frightful tragedy from Mr. Edwin Mosley, one of the survivors, and the only member of the party who escaped uninjured: He says that the attack was made on Friday 30th, April, at daybreak.

“The party to which he belonged was twelve in number, and were sleeping in 6 tents, about nine miles above the ferry where it was subsequently ascertained that Tim Smith had been previously murdered…

“The first intimation which Mr. Mosley said he had heard of the attack was when two Indians came to the tent — in which himself and two others, named Joseph and James Campbell, were sleeping. The savages were armed with muskets, axes, and knives and lifted up the end of the tent, whooped and fired immediately — shooting Fielding and Campbell, and pulling the tent down on top of them. They then took their knives and axes and hacked out through the canvas at our informant’s two companions, soon despatching them. Mosley — upon whom the tentpole had fallen, lay perfectly quiet and was not struck.

“The Indians, thinking that all three were dead, rushed to attack another tent, when our informant crawled from beneath the canvas and plunged into the river, which was only about two steps distant — and ran through the water which was knee deep… After running about 100 yards, he turned and looking towards the scene of slaughter, saw a large number of Indian squaws and children, gathered around the tent where the provisions were kept, which was occupied by Chas. Bottle (an ex-sapper and miner) who acted as cook for the party. They had evidently killed Bottle, and were dividing the provisions.

“Mosely continued his flight down the river for a mile, jumping from boulder to boulder on the bank, when he saw a man ahead of him crawling along. He at first took him to be one of the murderers: but on approaching he saw that he was one of his company — Peter Peterson, a Dane — who had been shot in the left arm and had escaped from the scene of massacre in a manner similar to Mosely. He was very weak and suffered much from his wound… On arriving at the ferry, our informant shouted to the ferryman to take him across…when Peterson, who had partially recovered his strength arrived, and also halloed with like ill success. Thinking that the ferryman might be asleep, the two continued to shout at intervals during the day, without success, however. The ferryman, poor fellow, was deaf to all earthly calls.

“They remained on the same side ’till next day, at noon when they were joined by Buckley, another survivor of the massacre, who had been struck while asleep in his tent, on the head with a musket by an Indian; he sprang up, and knocked his assailant down with his fist and made for the door of his tent, where he was met by two Indians, both of whom stabbed him in each side simultaneously. He raised his arm to strike one of them, when he was cut in the arm, and fell to the ground. Then they rushed into the tent and despatched the other occupant — John Hoffman, an old Puget Sound hunter.

“Buckley, when he revived, crept into the brush and laid down until noon of the same day; he then crawled along towards where Brewster’s tent had been pitched — about two miles ahead. On nearing the spot after dark, he saw fires burning and heard dogs barking, and as there were no dogs with Brewster’s party, he rightly concluded that that party had likewise fallen victims…

“After Buckley had joined Mosely and Peterson, the three fixed a loop in the guy-rope which is stretched across the river; into this loop Buckley got, and worked himself along slowly inch-by-inch until he was within 12 feet of the opposite bank, when he dropped into the river and swam ashore. The others succeeded in crossing by the same means, and found that the ferry skiff had been cut to pieces with axes; and the house plundered of nearly everything. By the side of the fire where the ferryman usually cooked his meals, there was a great pool of blood, and from thence to the river there was a trail, as if some body having been dragged along the ground and thrown into the water.

“About an hour afterwards two packers, French Canadians, with five Bute Inlet Indians, came up the river from the head of the Inlet. They had heard of the massacre from an Indian who had worked for Brewster’s party…

“This Indian reported that he came through the camp from which Mosley and his companions had escaped, and saw nine dead bodies of white men stripped naked and lying on the bank…

“He added that the murderers came on three of Brewster’s party, about seven o’clock on the same morning, and shot them while working. Two of the murderers had started to kill Mr. Brewster, who was a short distance ahead engaged in blazing the trail…

“The ferry skiff was repaired, and the two wounded men, two Indians, one of the packers and Mr. Mosely, floated down the river to the Half-way House, 15 miles above the head of the Inlet, where they met another friendly Indian with a large canoe who took them all to the town-site…

“Mr. Mosely said that the Indians had always expressed themselves as friendly towards the whites and that no difficulty had ever occurred between them and any of the men; They were all in the employ of the company. Peterson says that the man who shot him was employed in packing drills from the blacksmith shop. The object of the attack was undoubtedly plunder.” 

 –‘A Survivor’s Account’,
Canadian Mysteries

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/230en.html 

TheBritishColonistHeader
And from the
Daily British Colonist, 12 May 1864:

“The intelligence received yesterday morning, the particulars of which we publish in to-day’s issue, of the massacre by Indians of fourteen men, who were working on the Bute Inlet route, is the most startling thing of the kind that has yet taken place in either colony.

“There is something almost fiendish in the manner in which this treacherous massacre was perpetrated. Sixteen able-bodied Indians, who had been accustomed to pack for the workmen, accompanied by a number of youths, steal upon twelve of the sleeping white men, and with gun, and knife, and axe, fire and cut and hack at their surprised and helpless victims. Three of the men escaped with their lives, though not entirely unscathed, two having been severely wounded. The other portion of the wagon-road party, four in number, were making preparations to commence the day’s work, when they were ruthlessly shot down and savagely mutilated.

The cause of this Indian outbreak was, so far as at present can be ascertained, entirely one of plunder. The men who have returned say that the Indians have been hitherto treated in the kindest manner, and that there was not the slightest indication of ill feeling amongst them prior to this murderous attack. The labors of the party on the trail had just brought the line of travel into the Chilcoaten territory, and this may have had some slight effect in making the Chilcoaten Indians less scrupulous toward the white men…

“However much we regret the occurrence of this horrible slaughter of unoffending men, we are by no means amazed at the growing insecurity of the white man’s life amongst the northern savages. What between the reckless indifference to Indian life, amounting to inhumanity, of one portion of our population, and the maudlin sympathy, amounting to the encouragement of crime {Are you listening, Premier?}, of another, the Indian is actually forced into disregarding the law…

“The number of instances of Indian murdering and marauding which have recently occurred, and which have been allowed to go unpunished, are as dangerous to the safety of our isolated whites as they are disgraceful to a civilized Government. It is time that this worse than temporising should cease. A murder has now been perpetrated, and fourteen of our citizens have been cruelly robbed of life. It may be, that while we are yet writing, another bloody sacrifice is being offered up to Indian avarice in the persons of the six men who have started inland from Bentinck Arm. No time should therefore be lost to endeavoring to bring the guilty parties to justice…

“It is evident that an example – a terrible example – must be set to our Indian tribes. That they are sometimes forced into shedding the blood of the white man, through the white man’s own injustice, we do not deny; but there is also the more deplorable fact staring us in the face, that covetousness or fancied slights are quite sufficient to impel the native to deeds of murder… Let them feel, as they will if our governments act with vigour, that every uncalled-for attack upon the white man will be punished promptly and severely, and we shall hear of but few Indian assassinations…” 

{And, of course, the executions of the Chiefs DID put an end to the killings…}

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/239en.html
Waddington's Route
“Additional Particulars”, Daily Chronicle, May 12, 1864:

“Mr. Waddington thinks that the trail crossing a portion of the Chilicooten Territory, may have influenced them in some degree in making the attack, but plunder was no doubt the main object they had in view.

“The hour of attack was well chosen – just before daylight — when the poor victims were in their soundest sleep. The plan of slaughter, to judge from the disconnected accounts furnished us, seems to have been formed with military precision, each Indian selecting his man. The attacking party numbered about 18, all Chilicootens, who were in the employ of the Road Company, and were accompanied by their women and children.

“The workmen were divided into two camps; one gang, numbering five men, were ahead, with Mr. Brewster, foreman of the work, and the other gang, numbering twelve men, were working at what is known as the third bluff, nine miles above the ferry. Of the latter party, only three are known to have escaped; and of the former, all are believed to have been destroyed. About fifteen miles above the point where Brewster’s party were working, Alex. McDonald, with seven or eight men, was engaged in cutting the trail from Benshee Lake, to meet Brewster’s gang, and it is feared that this party, too, have fallen victims. The murderers are Chilicooten Indians. The Bute Inlet Indians are friendly, and will no doubt render valuable assistance in bringing the guilty parties to justice, to any force sent up for their punishment.”

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/357en.html 

Victim Clifford Higgins
Victim Clifford Higgins

And:
“As the particulars of the fearful massacre laid before our readers in another column will doubtless invest the blood thirsty perpetrators with a horrible interest, we give a brief description of the tribe, their numbers, appearance, etc., as furnished us by a former packer on the Bentinck Arm trail, and who has also travelled over the entire Bute Inlet route.

“The full number of warriors in the tribe does not exceed 50 men at the outside, with about 100 women and children. The men are a very large athletic race, many of them being over 6 feet in height, and stout in proportion. They are well armed with muskets and large knives, and have also a good many revolvers. Although they have been described as Horse Indians, they have but very few horses, only 8 or 9 being in their possession last winter. Their headquarters lie about 100 miles from the head of Bute Inlet, on the shores of the Benshee, Tatla, and Chilcoaten Lakes…

This tribe is extremely warlike, and is the terror of the Coast Indians, who fly at their approach. Although they are well supplied with flint-lock muskets, they are short of flints, and are in addition rather poor marksmen, not having been long in the possession of fire-arms. They are described as very cowardly and treacherous.”

–‘The Chilcoaten Indians – The Murderers of Mr. Waddington’s Party’,
The Daily British Colonist, May 12, 1864

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/235en.htmlHiggins2
‘Peter Petersen’s Statement’:

“My name is Peter Peterson; I am a native of Denmark; I worked at Bute Inlet last summer… I joined Mr. Waddington’s party and commenced working 23rd March last.

“I was lying in a tent by myself asleep on Friday night week; the whole party, 12 in number, were fast asleep, suspecting nothing. About daybreak, I heard two shots fired; I started up and rushed out of the tent; I saw two Indians firing into the tent next to me. One of them on seeing me rushed up and aimed a blow with the butt-end of his musket. I succeeded in warding off the blow, and jumped away, when another Indian came up with a large axe and struck at me with both hands. I jumped to one side, and the axe struck the ground. I then ran to the bank of the river and got behind a tree to hide myself, as I saw the Indian who first struck at me coming up with a musket to shoot. The Indian waited for two minutes for a chance to shoot, and was gradually getting closer to me, at last he fired and shot me in the left arm, the ball passing through my wrist.

“I then jumped into the stream, which was running fast, the blood poured profusely from my wound, and discolored the water. The Indian, probably thinking I was killed, did not attempt to follow me, and I was carried down by the stream about a quarter of a mile, being much bruised by rolling over the stones and snags. I only heard two shots fired after I jumped into the water. I was stopped by a large stone in the stream, and crawled out…”
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‘Buckley’s Statement’:

“My name is Philip Buckley; I am a native of Ireland. I was one of Mr. Waddington’s road party engaged to work on the Bute Inlet trail. On Friday night week our party of 12 men retired to rest in the camp as usual, nothing having occurred to raise any suspicion that danger was at hand. I was lying asleep in a tent with another man when about daybreak I received a severe blow on my head, dealt by an Indian, who had stealthily entered the tent and struck me with the butt-end of a musket. Though partially stunned and confused I jumped up and rushed to the door of the tent where I met two Indians, who stabbed at me several times with long knives. I received one wound to the right loin, another in the left and a third severe cut in my left wrist. I dropped down between the two Indians, who left me, imagining, no doubt, that I was killed. I then crawled into some brush wood and there fainted away…

“In about an hour I came to my senses and heard a noise going on in the camp but could not see what was being done. I fancied the men were engaged in packing away the things from our camp. I managed to crawl a distance of about 150 yards to some water, where I drank eagerly, and remained there till about 5 o’clock; I felt stronger after quenching my thirst, and started off for Brewster’s camp. I had gone about half a mile when I detected the same Indians encamped, and I turned back and remained all night near the spot I left. The next morning before daylight I started off and made the best of my way, though very weak, to the ferry, where I was rejoiced to find Petersen and Mosley…”
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‘Mosley’s Statement’:

“I am an Englishman, and came here from California in June last. Spent the season in Cariboo. I was one of the party who were attacked on the Bute Inlet trail on the 30th April… I was in a tent with Fielding and Campbell on the morning referred to, and about daybreak I was awakened by two Indians coming to the door of the tent; they did not enter, but raised it up and whooped at the same time each of them fired on either side of me. I was lying in the centre. They then let the tent down; the ridge pole fell on the top of me and the tent covered all three of us. While lying in this position, I saw knives on each side of me come through the tent and pierce the bodies of my two companions. I could see through the side of the tent, and observing Indians going to the other tents, I jumped up and plunged into the river, which was about two steps from me. I could not identify who those Indians were, but they were dressed something like the Indians who were with us; one had red blankets made like leggings, which I had noticed before.

“After going down the river about 100 yards, I got out and saw the Indians, men, women and children, shouting and hallooing where the cook’s tent and provisions were. I then turned away and proceeded towards the ferry, meeting with Peterson about two miles below.

“I never heard or knew of any difference between our people and the Chilcoaten Indians. The number who travelled about with us was usually from 12 to 15, without reckoning families, and some Clayooshes or Homathco, named Indian Jim, George, and Squint Eye, who did general work about the camp. About the same number was with us on the night preceding the attack. I could identify all of the Chilcoaten Indians if I saw them.”
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“The survivors state distinctly that they are not aware of the least provocation given to the Indians to commit these deeds of atrocity. They were always treated kindly and received presents of tobacco and other articles, besides food from the working party. There had been no quarrel between them and the white men and although several articles were stolen at different times from the camp, no notice had been taken of the circumstance, and the Road party had not attempted reprisals…

“We cannot conclude this painful narrative without expressing our sympathy with Mr. Waddington in the trouble which has thus overtaken him. This gentleman has toiled hard, and fought nobly and manfully against the insuperable obstacles which have presented themselves in carrying through the Bute Inlet project, and this unexpected blow must fall heavily upon him just as the horizon was bright with the dawn of success.”

–“Dreadful Massacre!”, Daily British Colonist, May 12, 1864

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/236en.html
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 From the ‘Inquest of William Brewster, John Clark and Jim Gawley’:

George Clohouse, Indian, states:
“I was cook to Mr. Brewster whose dead Body I saw the other day. I remember the day the Chilcoten Siwashes killed the white men early in the morning. I was washing the things after the men had eaten their breakfast — four men breakfasted, Jim, Clark, Battiste and Brewster. Brewster had gone away to mark trees, the other three men were working a short way from where I was but I could only see Jim. I heard four shots but did not see any shot fired, but I saw Jim fall. A slave of the Chilcotens who knew me ran up to me caught me by the hand and pulled me and told me to run away lest the Chilcotens would shoot me. When he said this to me and having heard the shots I suspected that the white men were shot. When I was getting away I saw five Chilcoten Indians with guns and two without guns. One of the latter was the slave whose name is Shechennah. I do not know the names of the other Chilcotens but I would know their faces if I saw them again. One Chilcoten had red trousers on. As I was going away when about half the distance between Brewsters Camp and the camp where the other men were murdered I met a great crowd of Indian women carrying heavy loads on their backs going towards Chilcoten Country. They were accompanied by about ten men. The men were also carrying heavy loads on their backs. Amongst these ten men I recognized Tellut and Klatsassin Chansassy. They all seemed to be in a great hurry. When I arrived at the Camp occupied by the other white men I saw four white men lying dead and bloody. I do not know their names…” 

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/297en.html Alfred_Waddington(EDIT)‘Mr. Waddington’s Deposition’:

“I have sent up 8 or 9 expeditions to Bute Inlet, and am familiar with the north country and many of the Indians. I have arranged the whole route from the head of Bute Inlet to within 30 or 40 miles of Quesnelle river. There are several tribes of Indians on the route… The Clayoosh and Euclata Indians claim just rights on the valley of the Himathco up to the head of the valley on Salmon ranch. The next tribe, a very small one, claim from there to about a mile beyond the great [canyon?]. Tellot is their great chief; they are a branch of the Chilcotens. The Chilcoten tribe proper extends from the above point (a mile beyond the great canyon) northward probably 150 miles by 120 from east to west…

A deadly feud existed between the lower Indians and the Chilcoaten Indians who massacred 19 on the 1st June, 20 years ago, at a spot about a mile above the ferry. I succeeded in making peace between the tribes two years ago, and they have since been on tolerable terms, though still suspicious of each other…

“I have read the statement of Peter A. Petersen which I believe to be correct in all its particulars… The massacre of the party took place on the Chilcoaten territory, which the trail had entered for several miles. The party sent up last year was well armed, but so much confidence existed this year with respect to the Indians, that Mr. Brewster (the foreman) thought it perfectly useless to provide the party with arms, which I had suggested to him.

I can fully corroborate what is said by Petersen about the good understanding with Indians. It was even an amicable feeling, and I never heard of the existence of any dissatisfaction or complaint. Tilloot used to call me his best friend.

“There were originally no Indians on the route from the town site to the forks, save the very small tribe at the ferry ; but since the expeditions for the construction of the trail have taken place, they have congregated from all quarters, amounting sometimes to 200 or 250, and have received repeated presents of food and blankets, besides regular earning for packing, canoeing, and other services…”

–“Mr. Waddington’s Deposition”. Daily British Colonist, May 12, 1864

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/murdersorwar/deathofaroadcrew/237en.html

"Klatsassan, the Chilicoaten chief...insisted upon Ahan and Lootas assisting in the murder, threatening them with death if they refused."
“Klatsassan, the Chilicoaten chief…insisted upon Ahan and Lootas assisting in the murder, threatening them with death if they refused.”

“The Chilicoaten Murderers”, The British Columbian, June 1, 1865:

“Mr. Moss arrived in this city on Tuesday with the two Indian prisoners, Ahan and Lootas. They were examined before the Hon. Mr. Brew yesterday and committed for trial. Ahan quite admits having shot at Peter McDougal, but says he was only one of four who shot at him, but Lootas says he was alone in the matter. Lootas admits being present at the murder, but says he took no part in it, he only having shot one of the horses. Both these Indians say that Klatsassan, the Chilicoaten chief, one of those executed last year, insisted upon their assisting in the murder, threatening them with death if they refused. Ochpishermoos, the Indian who was brought down last year, was a witness against them. He identified them as having been present at the massacre…” 

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/klatsassin/aftermath/thetrials/ahanandlutas/243en.html 

Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie
Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie

And yet, in spite of the overwhelming evidence, we still have this:

“Grand Chief Ed John was a young lawyer when he spoke more than 30 years ago at the University of Victoria’s new law-school building named after Matthew Begbie, British Columbia’s ‘hanging judge’. International scholars were present to discuss aboriginal issues and ‘rights’, but John said he was compelled to tell them they were gathered in a building named after the judge who sentenced many ‘First Nations’ to hang, including Tsilhqot’in chiefs after the Chilcotin War {It’s historical title is the “Chilcotin Massacre”. When you go to war, you declare it; you don’t just ambush and murder civilians and steal their goods…}.

“I said I want to raise a question about this law school and about this conference on {so-called} ‘aboriginal rights’ and I want to tie it back to what this school’s been named because I want to talk to you about Matthew Baillie Begbie, the so-called ‘hanging judge’,” {And who rendered the proper verdict in this case…}

said John, who now leads the ‘First Nations’ Summit’, B.C.’s largest aboriginal organization.

“Six chiefs from B.C.’s central Interior Cariboo-Chilcotin region were hanged in 1864 for murder and for their parts in what is known as Western Canada’s deadliest attack by aboriginals on non-aboriginal settlers.

“The colony of B.C. approved a toll road from Bute Inlet on the coast to Barkerville in the Cariboo gold fields, but the Tsilhqot’in, decimated by smallpox and fiercely protective of their homelands, ‘mounted a resistance’ {A desciption that belies the historical evidence…}.

“It started in April 1864, and by the end of May, 19 road builders and a farmer were dead.

“He was the judge who sentenced the Tsilhqot’in chiefs to hang,” John said. “These were the chiefs who were ‘fighting for the rights to their land’, for the rights of their people to their respective lands, and we have this conference in this school named after this {offensively-labelled} ‘hanging judge’.”

{So…the Judge becomes the guilty party, not the murderers of 19 people. That’s the kind of ‘insight’ that a racist viewpoint provides…}

“It’s taken 150 years, but the ‘circle of justice’ for the Tsilhqot’in is almost complete, he said.

“The Bute Inlet road to the central Interior was never completed {The first of many economic projects that have been illegally interfered with – and this coming from a people who are dependent on other Canadians for survival…}.

“‘UVic’ changed the name of the law school building {One of the many examples of Canadian universities’ willingness to cater to a racist worldview, while betraying their Western intellectual heritage}, and a bronze statue of Begbie mysteriously disappeared from the campus…” {Shameful…}

–‘Justice’ for Tsilhqot’in finally arrives 150 years after ‘war’ hangings’,
Dirk Meissner, The Canadian Press October 24, 2014

http://www.news1130.com/2014/10/24/justice-for-tsilhqotin-finally-arrives-150-years-after-war-hangings/OurHomeORNativeLAndIn summary:
“We have developed a huge industry around “native land claims” and the rewards for the participants are enormous. Staggering sums are spent on “research”, lawyers, bureaucrats, and sundry hangers-on…

This  is not…about the Left or the Right — it is about fools. Well meaning fools no doubt, but nonetheless, fools

The government of B.C. (and Canada) is determined to change us from a peace-loving, democratic province — under the rule of law being equally applied to all — to a state where, in large areas, race counts for everything. If the government has its way — sad as this is to say — it is hard to believe that we will be a peaceful people for very long…

“God help us all, including the generations to come.” 

–Rafe Mair, April 4, 1995, quotes from the ‘Forward’ to “Our Home Or Native Land?”, Melvin H. Smith, Q.C.

http://www.amazon.ca/Our-home-native-land-governments/dp/0773758216

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MAIN IMAGE: Chilko Lake in Nemiah Valley (John Lehmann –The Globe and Mail)
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See also:
‘B.C. Mounties Threatened, Fired Upon at Tsilhqot’in Reserve’ (July 29, 2014):
https://www.facebook.com/ENDRACEBASEDLAW/photos/a.336196793149227.59519.332982123470694/517319788370259/?type=1
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